Cosmin Popa, Ioana Rudnic, Ionut Luchian, Silvia MARTU
Occlusal Trauma – A Risk Factor in the Etiopatogeny of Periodontal Disease. Review.
The study of the occlusion and its’ role in the masticatory system were and are an interest point in dentistry. The periodontal structures are influenced by the the functional occlusal forces in order to activate the periodontal mechanocepters. The occlusal forces stimulates the receptors from the periodontal ligament in order to adjust the maxillary movements and the intensity of the occlusal forces. A traumatic occlusion in a healthy periodontal context will lead to the increase of tooth mobility but not to the loss of attachment. Tooth mobility can be defined as a clinical expression of the elastic properties of the PDL and functional response. In the affected periodontal structures, a traumatic occlusion contributes to supplementary spreading of the inflammation and to a larger amount of bone loss but it was not related yet to the etiology of gingival recessions. While the healthy periodontium can absorb the occlusal forces, in the affected periodontal tissues these can have a destructive potential. For studying the occlusal trauma, it’s important to conduct very exact clinical examination correlated to all necessary paraclinical explorations to reach a correct diagnosis. As a Conclusion we can state that dental-periodontal lessions due to occlusal trauma are complex and can appear isolated or associated with different gravity from region to region in the same patient.
Keywords: occlusal trauma, dental-periodontal lessions